Giotto imbued his figures with personality and tried to give expression to their faces and bearing, as is clearly visible from his major work: the frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, a.k.a. the Arena Chapel. Giotto may very well have been the first painter succeeding in creating unified compositions: there is unity between the figures and their surroundings and unity among the figures, interacting as they do through gesture and emotion.
Giotto was also a major source of inspiration for the painter, and he embraced Giotto's example in a rejection of the International Gothic style of the time.
He is one of the first artists to use a vanishing point in his work employing the use of scientific perspective in his paintings.
Dante and the divine comedy
The Divine Comedy describes Dante's journey through Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio), and Paradise (Paradiso), guided first by the Roman poet Virgil and then by Beatrice, the subject of his love. Showed the religious aspect of the middle ages while also addressing the worldly concerns of the renaissance. The work serves as the philosophic bridge between Europe’s past and it’s future
Castiglione and the Courtier
The book "The Courtier" written by Castiglione addresses the topic of what constitutes an ideal Renaissance gentleman. In the Middle Ages, the perfect gentleman had been a chivalrous knight who distinguished himself by his prowess on the battlefield. Castiglione's book changed that. Now the perfect gentleman had to have a classical education in Greek and Latin letters, as well.
Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the leading architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance, and is best known for his work on the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (the Duomo) in Florence.
His works include the David and Pieta statues and the ceiling paintings of Rome's Sistine Chapel, including the Last Judgement. Watch short video below to learn more about works of Michelangelo.
Leonardo Da VInci
His best-known works are two of the most famous paintings of all time, the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper." Da Vinci's scientific inquiries fill 13,000 pages, ranging from anatomy to war machines.
Raphael was heavily influenced by the works of the Italian painters Fra Bartolommeo, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Masaccio. To Raphael, these innovative artists had achieved a whole new level of depth in their composition. The Stanza della Segnatura series of frescos include The School of Athens. In the fresco cycle,Raphael expressed the humanistic philosophy.
Over his career Donatello developed a style of lifelike, highly emotional sculptures and a reputation second only to Michelangelo's. His most famous work standing a little over five feet tall, David represents an allegory of civic virtue triumphing over brutality and irrationality.
Lorenzo de’ Medici ruled Florence from 1469 to 1478. Lorenzo was considered the Wise, “the needle on the Italian scales,” and ruled from 1478 to 1492. Lorenzo’s patronage of the arts was renowned, and those under his protection included Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci.
Niccolo Machiavelli (born May 3, 1469) was a diplomat for 14 years in Italy's Florentine Republic during the Medici family's exile. When the Medicis returned to power in 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed and briefly jailed. He then wrote The Prince, a handbook for politicians on the use of ruthless, self-serving cunning, inspiring the term "machiavellian." He also wrote several poems and plays.
Classical period School of Athens
Cosimo d’Medici and family
The Divine Comedy
In Praise of Folly
2013. The Biography Channel website. Jan 21 2013, 06:54http://www.biography.com/